In the current discussions about the roles of women in the Church, Phoebe, Junia and Priscilla have received a great deal of attention. These three women are mentioned in the New Testament as being involved in significant Christian ministry. Much of the discussion surrounding these women concerns identifying their actual ministries, and evaluating the precedent, if any, they set for women in the Church today.
Euodia and Syntyche are two lesser known women who were ministers in the church. The Apostle Paul names these two women in his letter to the Philippians and in just a few verses he gives us a glimpse into the value and significance of their ministries.
I urge Euodia and I urge Syntyche to think the same thing in the Lord. Indeed, I ask you, my true companion [or, yokefellow], to help them – these women who have contended together with me in [the cause of] the gospel, along with Clement and the rest of my co-workers, whose names are in the book of life. Philippians 4:2-3
Were Euodia and Syntyche Overseers or Deacons?
When he describes the ministry of Euodia and Syntyche, Paul uses a couple of the same terms he had previously applied to Timothy and Epaphroditus. Paul writes that Euodia and Syntyche had contended together with him (literally) “in the Gospel”. Earlier in the same letter, Paul had also described Timothy as someone who had served with him “in the Gospel” (Php 2:22). Paul goes on to refer to Euodia and Syntyche as his “co-workers”. Earlier, Paul had also referred to Epaphroditus as his “co-worker” (Php 2:25). Thus, according to Paul, the ministries of these women were comparable to the ministries of the men, Timothy and Epaphroditus.
Early church bishop and theologian, John Chrysostom (c349-407), believed that Euodia and Syntyche were the leaders of the Philippian church. Moreover, he compared them to Phoebe, a woman minister (diakonos) in Cenchrea (Rom 16:1-2). In his 13th Homily on Philippians he wrote:
These women [Euodia and Syntyche] seem to me to be the chief of the Church which was there, and [Paul] commends them to some notable man whom he calls his yokefellow; [Paul] commends them to him, as to a fellow-worker, and fellow-soldier, and brother, and companion, as he does in the Epistle to the Romans, when he says, I commend to you Phoebe our sister, who is a minister of the church at Cenchrea (Romans 16:1). (Homilies on Philippians, 13)
Women of Macedonia
It was not unsual for women to have leadership roles in Philippi. Philippi was the chief city of Macedonia (Acts 16:12) and it has been well documented that Macedonian women enjoyed greater freedom, rights and powers than many other women of that time.
“If Macedonia produced perhaps the most competent group of men the world had yet seen, the women were in all respects the men’s counterparts; they played a large part in affairs, received envoys and obtained concessions for them from their husbands, built temples, founded cities, engaged mercenaries, commanded armies, held fortresses, and acted on occasion as regents or even co rulers.” W. Tarn and G.T. Griffith in Hellenistic Civilisation, 3rd Edition, 1952, pp89,99; quoted by Martin (1983:16)
“We can see this [freedom of women] even in the narrative in Acts of Paul’s work in Macedonia. In Philippi, Paul’s first contact was with the meeting for prayer by a riverside, and he spoke to the women gathered there (Acts 16:13). Lydia was obviously a leading figure in Philippi (Acts 16:14). In Thessalonica, many of the chief women were won for Christianity, and the same thing happened at Berea (Acts 17:4 & 12). . . . it is well worth remembering, when we are thinking of the place of women in the early church and of Paul’s attitude to them, that in the Macedonian churches they clearly had a leading place.” (Barclay 2003:86)
Paul’s letter to the Philippians differs to his other letters because Paul specifically includes the overseers (episkopoi) and ministers (diakonoi) in his opening greeting. Instead of the traditional English translation of “overseers and deacons”, FF Bruce (1981) translates this phrase in Philippians 1:1 as “chief pastors and ministers” which more faithfully conveys the meaning of these roles in New Testament times. It does seem that Euodia and Syntyche (and possibly Clement who is mentioned with them), were the overseers or chief pastors of the Philippian church. At the very least Euodia and Syntyche were ministers (diakonoi). [See footnote 7.]
Were Euodia and Syntyche Quarrelling?
In Philippians 4:2, Paul urged Euodia and he urged Syntyche to, literally, “think the same thing”. That Paul addressed Euodia and Syntyche personally and individually, reinforces the idea that these women had considerable influence in the Philippian church, and probably were leaders.
Were Euodia and Syntyche quarrelling? This is the assumption most people have, and many Bible versions convey this assumption in their translations. Paul, however, does not say that Euodia and Syntyche were quarrelling. Paul simply urged each of them (literally) “to think the same thing in the Lord”. In the preceding verses in Philippians, Paul had been encouraging mature people to have the same thinking as himself – that of reaching out for the goal spiritual perfection (Philippians 3:14-15). It could well be that Paul is carrying on this thought, and using almost identical language, is saying personally, “I encourage Euodia and I encourage Syntyche to have the same thinking in the Lord . . . ” (Php 4:2).
Chrysostom did not see any sign of a quarrel in Paul’s plea to Euodia and Syntyche; he saw only praise from Paul and wrote: “Do you see how great a testimony he [Paul] bears to their virtue?” (Homilies on Philippians, 13)
In the New Testament text there are many examples of women who were involved in significant gospel ministry, some as Church leaders. Even though these women – women such as Euodia and Syntyche – are mentioned briefly, they do serve as valid, biblical precedents for women in ministry today. If Paul valued the leadership ministries of certain women, we should be careful not to hinder godly, gifted and capable women from following their calling to be ministers and leaders in the Church today.
 Euodia is probably pronounced: “yew-oh-DEE-ah”. Syntyche is probably pronounced “Sin-TICK-ay”, or “Soon- TOOK-ay” (depending on how the upsilon was pronounced.)
Euodia’s name comes from the Greek verb euodoō which means “. . . to give a prosperous journey; to cause to proper or be successful . . . ” (Perschbacher 1990:181)[eu=well, hodos= road] The word is used in Rom 1:10; 1 Cor 16:2; and 3 John 2 (twice). The name can be likened in meaning to “Bon Voyage”.
Syntyche’s name comes from the Greek word suntuchia, which means “the unexpected coinciding of two events, happening, chance” (BDAG 976) This word is used in Luke 10:31. The name can be likened in meaning to “Serendipity”.
 Sunathleō – contend, is used twice in Philippians; in 1:27 and in 4:3. It means: to contend on the side of someone; to cooperate vigorously with a person; or, to make every effort in the cause of, or support of something. (Perschbacher 1990: 388) Euodia and Syntyche’s ministry was not light-weight.
 Paul mentions several of his co-workers (sunergoi) in the New Testament: Priscilla and Aquila (Rom 16:6); Urbanus (Rom 16:9); Timothy (Rom 16:21); Titus (2 Cor 8:23); Epaphroditus (Php 2:25) Euodia, Syntyche and Clement (Php 4:3); Aristarchus, Mark and Justus (Col 4:10-11); Philemon (Phm 1); Mark, Aristarchus, Demas and Luke (Phm 24).
 Here is John Chrysostom’s entire commentary about Euodia and Syntyche:
I exhort Euodia, and I exhort Syntyche, to be of the same mind in the Lord. Yea, I beseech you also, true yokefellow, help these women. Philippians 4:2-3a
Some say Paul here exhorts his own wife; but it is not so, but some other woman, or the husband of one of them.
“Help these women, for they laboured with me in the Gospel, with Clement also, and the rest of my fellow-workers whose names are in the book of life.” Philippians 4:3
Do you see how great a testimony he bears to their virtue? For as Christ says to his Apostles, “Rejoice not that the spirits are subject to you, but rejoice that your names are written in the book of life” Luke 10:20; so Paul testifies to them, saying, “whose names are in the book of life.”
These women seem to me to be the chief of the Church which was there, and he commends them to some notable man whom he calls hisyokefellow,to whom perchance he was wont to commend them, as to a fellow-worker, and fellow-soldier, and brother, and companion, as he does in the Epistle to the Romans, when he says,I commend unto you Phoebe our sister, who is a servant of the Church that is at Cenchrea.Romans 16:1.Yokefellow;either some brother of theirs, or a husband of hers; as if he had said, Now you are a true brother, now a true husband, because you have become a Member.For they laboured with me in the Gospel.This protection came from home, not from friendship, but for good deeds.
Laboured with me.
What do you say? Did women labour with you? Yes, he answers, they too contributed no small portion. Although many were they who wrought together with him, yet these women also acted with him among the many. The Churches then were no little edified, for many good ends are gained where they who are approved, be they men, or be they women, enjoy from the rest such honor. For in the first place the rest were led on to a like zeal; in the second place, they also gained by the respect shown; and thirdly, they made those very persons more zealous and earnest. Wherefore you see that Paul has everywhere a care for this, and commends such men for consideration. As he says in the Epistle to the Corinthians:Who are the first-fruits of Achaia,1 Corinthians 16:15. Some say that the wordyokefellow,(Syzygus,) is a proper name. Well, what? Whether it be so, or no, we need not accurately enquire, but observe that he gives his orders, that these women should enjoy much protection. (Chrysostom, Homilies on Philippians, 13, from newadvent.org)
 Lydia was a wealthy woman and the first Christian convert in Philippi. (In fact Lydia was the first Christian convert in Europe.) It is very likely that Lydia hosted and led the first house church in Philippi when Paul moved on from these to continue his missionary journey. See Acts 16:13-15, 40.
 The word “deacon” is problematic as this role is understood very differently by different denominations. Whenever the Apostle Paul used the term diakonos he always used it in reference to a minister of the Gospel, (and not to a steward.) Paul referred to several New Testament people, including himself, as diakonoi (ministers): Paul (Rom 15:25; 1 Cor 3:5; Eph 3:7; Col 1:23, etc), Epaphras (Col 1:7), Tychicus (Eph 6:21-22; Col 4:7-9), Phoebe (Rom 16:1-2), Apollos (1 Cor 3:5) and even Jesus Christ (Mk 10:42-45; Rom 15:8)
 Paul fondly mentions many women in his letters: Apphia (Phm 1:2), Claudia (2 Tim 4:21), Chloe (1 Cor 1:11), Euodia (Php 4:2), Julia (Rom 16:15), Junia (Rom 16:7), Lois and Eunice (2 Tim 1:5), Mary (Rom 16:6), Nereus’ sister (Rom 16:15), Nympha (Col 4:15), Persis (Rom 16:12), Phoebe (Rom 16:1-2), Priscilla (Rom 6:3-5); 1 Cor 16:19; 2 Tim 4:19), Rufus’ mother (Rom 16:13), Syntyche (Php 4:2), Tryphena and Tryphosa (Rom 16:12). These women were actively involved in significant ministry, some as leaders.
© 13th of December, 2010, Margaret Mowczko.
This article first appeared at newlife.id.au here.