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Did Priscilla Teach Apollos?

By Margaret Mowczko

There is only one verse in the entire Bible which disallows a woman from teaching a man – 1 Timothy 2:12.  Some Christians see this verse as comprehensively declaring a universal and permanent ban on every woman teaching any man, in almost every conceivable situation, for all time!  This view, however, is called into question by another verse from scripture – Acts 18:26.  This verse gives the Biblical example of Priscilla who, along with her husband Aquila, explained the doctrine of Christian baptism to Apollos.  Some people, trying to justify their stance against women teachers and leaders, try to explain away the significance of this verse.

This article will briefly look at who Priscilla and Aquila were; and it will explore the meaning of the word explain used in the statement: “they [Priscilla and Aquila] . . . explained to him [Apollos] the Way of God more accurately” (Acts 18:24-26, NASB). This article will also answer the question: Did Priscilla, a woman, teach Apollos, a man?

 

Priscilla, Aquila and Paul

Priscilla (or Prisca)[1] and Aquila are mentioned by name six times in the Greek New Testament.  Significantly, in four of those occurrences, Priscilla’s name is mentioned first.  This unconventional order of the wife’s name before her husband’s is an indication that Priscilla’s ministry was more prominent than Aquila’s. [I have included all verses which speak about Priscilla and Aquila in endnote [2] below.]

Priscilla and her husband, Aquila, were devoted friends and ministry colleagues of Paul.[3] At some point they even risked their lives for Paul’s sake (Rom 16:3-5).

Paul first met Priscilla and Aquila when he went to Corinth as part of his second missionary journey.  Priscilla and Aquila had just arrived in Corinth from Rome.[4]  Paul spent eighteen months working together[5] with them in Corinth (Acts 18:1-3,11,18); and they became firm friends.  After Corinth, Priscilla, Aquila and Paul travelled together to Ephesus (Acts 18:18).  Paul had confidence in the abilities of both Priscilla and Aquila as church leaders, and he left them in Ephesus to lead a church that met in their house (1 Cor 16:19).   It was while Priscilla and Aquila were overseeing the church at Ephesus that they met Apollos.

 

Priscilla, Aquila and Apollos

Now a Jew named Apollos, an Alexandrian by birth, an eloquent man, came to Ephesus; and he was mighty in the Scriptures.  This man had been instructed in the way of the Lord; and being fervent in spirit, he was speaking and teaching accurately the things concerning Jesus, being acquainted only with the baptism of John; and he began to speak out boldly in the synagogue. But when Priscilla and Aquila heard him, they took him aside and explained to him the way of God more accurately. Acts 18:24-26 (NASB, my emphasis)

In Acts 18:24-26, Luke, the author of Acts, introduces his readers to Apollos.    Apollos was a Jewish Christian from Alexandria.  Alexandria was a renowned centre of learning in the ancient world and famous for its monumentally impressive and extensive library.  Apollos is literally described by Luke as a “man of words”.  This indicates that Apollos was an eloquent speaker, trained in rhetoric; or it may mean that Apollos was very well read and highly educated.  From Luke’s description of Apollos, both definitions fit very well.  Luke clearly portrays Apollos as both an eloquent orator and as someone with a thorough (literally “powerful”) understanding of the Hebrew Scriptures.  Apollos would go on to become an outstanding minister of the gospel (1 Cor 3:3-6 & 22).

Despite Apollos’ notable credentials, something was lacking in his theology.  Apollos was ignorant of Christian baptism.  Priscilla and Aquila recognised this lack, and as leaders of the local church, they took Apollos aside[6] and explained to him “The Way”, that is, the Christian faith, more accurately.[7]

The word “explain” is plural[8] indicating that both Priscilla and Aquila were involved.  However because Priscilla’s name is listed first, before her husband’s in Acts 18:26 – and due to this being very unusual – this order of names seems to indicate that Priscilla was more active in giving the explanation than Aquila.

 

Teach-didasko

Many different verbs[9] are commonly used in the New Testament in the context of someone communicating aspects of the gospel message and the Christian faith.  Much of this type of communication would include some degree of teaching and instruction.  Some people quibble about the meaning of the word “explain” (ektithemi) used in Acts 18:26.  They claim that it does not mean “teach”.  Didasko is the Greek word usually translated as “teach” or “instruct”.  BDAG (p241) defines didasko as “(1) to tell someone what to do, tell, instruct; . . . and (2) to provide instruction in a formal or informal setting, teach.”

In chapter 19 of Acts –  the chapter following the passage about Priscilla and Aquila’s “explaining” – Luke writes about Paul’s three month speaking ministry in the synagogue at Ephesus.  Luke uses the cognates of three different verbs in reference to Paul’s speaking about the Kingdom of God: (1) parresiazomai-speak boldly/freely, (2)dialegomai-discuss/reason and (3) peitho-persuade (Acts 19:8-9).  Luke does not specifically use the word teach-didasko here, and yet there can be no doubt at all that during those three months at Ephesus Paul  did in fact teach.  He taught using discussion, reasoning and persuasion.

It is unreasonable to suggest that Paul’s ministry in Acts 19:8-9 did not include teaching simply because Luke did not use the word didasko. It is equally unreasonable to suggest that Priscilla and Aquila’s explanation to Apollos did not include teaching because Luke did not use the word didasko.  Priscilla and Aquila did in fact teach Christian doctrine to Apollos.  This becomes very clear when you look at the meaning of “explain” (epitithemi)and the circumstances where Luke uses it elsewhere in Acts.

 

Explain-ektithemi

Luke is the only New Testament author to use the Greek word ektithemi.  He uses it four times, and only in the book of Acts.  There are two basic meanings for the wordektithemi.  In its most literal sense it means to “place outside” or “expose”.  BDAG (p310) gives the first definition of ektithemi as “withdraw support or protection from”.  Luke uses the word in this sense in Acts 7:21 where he recounts Stephen speaking about the baby Moses who was placed outside and left exposed on the Nile.

In a more metaphorical sense, ektithemi means “to put forth, declare, explain”. (Perschbacher 1990:131)[10]  BDAG (p310) gives the second definition of ektithemi as “to convey information by careful elaboration”.  This sounds a lot like teaching to me.  Luke uses the word in this sense three times in Acts: of Peter in Acts 11:4, of Priscilla and Aquila in Acts 18:26, and of Paul in Acts 28:23.  It is important to note that there is nothing at all trivial in these three instances where “explain” is used.

 

Peter’s Explaining in Acts 11:4

But Peter began and explained it to them point by point, saying . . . Acts 11:4 (NIV, my emphasis)

In Acts chapter 10, we read that the very first gentiles had become Christians and were baptised through Peter’s ministry.  The apostles and brothers in Judea were disturbed by this turn of events and when Peter went to Jerusalem they “took issue with him” (Acts 11:3 NIV).  Peter responds to their criticism, and in Acts 11:5-17 he explains (ektithemi) the remarkable events that he had personally been involved with, point by point (NIV), in an orderly sequence (NASB).  Peter does not merely relate his recent experiences, he persuasively presents his own conclusion (Acts 11: 17-18).  Peter’s speech about the inclusion of the gentiles in God’s plan for salvation was a monumental turning point for the Christian church which up to that point was completely Jewish.  And Luke uses the word ektithemi in this context.

 

Paul’s Explaining in Acts 28:23

When they had set a day for Paul, they came to him at his lodging in large numbers; and he was explaining to them by solemnly testifying about the kingdom of God and trying to persuade them concerning Jesus, from both the Law of Moses and from the Prophets, from morning until evening. Some were being persuaded by the things spoken, but others would not believe. Acts 28:23-24 (NASB, my emphasis)

In Luke’s final use of the word ektithemi we read that Paul was explaining and testifying and trying to persuade many people about Jesus using the Old Testament scriptures.  While Luke again does not use the word didasko in this passage, we can see that Paul was in fact trying to teach his visitors about Jesus.

 

An Objection to Priscilla “Teaching”

Daniel B. Wallace disagrees that Priscilla “taught” Apollos.  In his article Did Priscilla “Teach” Apollos? An Examination of the Meaning of ἐκτίθημι in Acts 18:26, he writes:

“The word [ektithemi] is actually somewhat of a vanilla term, basically meaning “lay out,” or “expose.” It can be used in various contexts, but in collocation with information being passed on it tends to be restricted to simple explanation without concomitant urging or rhetorical persuasiveness.”

It is unclear why Wallace regards ektithemi as a “vanilla term”, especially considering the context of its usage in Acts.  It is highly unlikely that Peter told his audience the amazing events recounted in Acts 11:5-17 dispassionately, with no desire or intention to change the minds of those present.  And in Acts 28:23 there is unmistakable evidence of “rhetorical persuasiveness”.

Wallace also states that:

“From the primary data and the lexical tools that interpret [ektithemi], there was seen to be almost no unusual meaning, virtually no sense that could be viewed as approaching didasko and its cognates in the NT. . .  the force of ektithemi never seemed to transgress into the realm of exhortation.”

It is a straightforward exercise to translate ektithemi into English as there are “almost no unusual meanings”; however it is difficult to understand why Wallace believes its meaning cannot be viewed as approaching  didasko.   “Explain” can often be practically synonymous in meaning to “teach” and “instruct”, whether in English or Greek.  Furthermore, it is very unclear why Wallace implies that didasko involves exhortation andektithemi doesn’t.

 

Conclusion

Typically, most English dictionaries define explain as “make plain and comprehensible”.  This is surely one of the major aims in teaching.  I would be very happy if my teaching was described as explaining.  To discount Priscilla and Aquila’s “explaining” as true teaching simply because Luke didn’t use the word didasko is unwarranted; especially when considering the meaning[11] and context of ektithemi in the book of Acts.

Did Priscilla, with her husband, teach Apollos “the Way of God more accurately”, including the doctrine of Christian baptism?  Did a woman, Priscilla, teach a man, Apollos?  Of course she did!

As a church leader, there would have been many occasions for Priscilla to teach, either informally or in church meetings.  Neither Luke nor Paul give any hint of censure or disapproval about Priscilla’s teaching Apollos, or her role as a church leader.  In light of the fact that Priscilla did instruct a man in Christian doctrine, the blanket ban by some, of women teaching men, must be reassessed and redressed.


Endnotes

[1] “Paul always refers to her as ‘Prisca’, the more respectful form of her name; Luke always adds the diminutive ending in ‘Priscilla’.” (Payne 2009:64)

[2] The Scriptures which mention Priscilla and Aquila:

There he [Paul] met a Jew named Aquila, a native of Pontus, who had recently come from Italy with his wife Priscilla, because Claudius had ordered all the Jews to leave Rome. Paul went to see them, and because he was a tentmaker as they were, he stayed and worked with them (Acts 18:2-3, NIV).

Paul stayed on in Corinth for some time. Then he left the brothers and sisters and sailed for Syria, accompanied by Priscilla and Aquila . . . They arrived at Ephesus, where he [Paul] left them [Priscilla and Aquila]. . . .  (Acts 18:18-19). Some translations such as the NIV repeat the names in Acts 18:19 for clarity, but the names are not repeated in the Greek texts.

He [Apollos] began to speak boldly in the synagogue. When Priscilla and Aquila heard him, they took him aside and explained to him The Way more accurately (Acts 18:26).

Greet Priscilla and Aquila, my co- workers in Christ Jesus. They risked their lives for me. Not only I but all the churches of the Gentiles are grateful to them (Romans 16:3-4).

The churches in the province of Asia send you greetings. Aquila and Priscilla greet you warmly in the Lord, and so does the church that meets at their house (1 Corinthians 16:19).

Greet Priscilla and Aquila . . . (2Timothy 4:19)

Non-Biblical and speculative ideas about Priscilla and Aquila:

Tradition holds that Priscilla and Aquila were both martyred; however the accounts of their martyrdom are vague, sketchy and contradictory.
Some theologians, such as Adolph von Harnack and Ruth Hoppin, speculate that Priscilla may have been the author of the book of Hebrews. An interesting article about this subject, here.
In the Constitutions of the Holy Apostles, Aquila and a man named Nicetas are listed as the first bishops of Asia.
An Orthodox Church tradition states that Aquila was one of Jesus’ 70 disciples in Luke 10:1-24.  (This is highly unlikely.)

[3] Twice Paul refers to Priscilla and Aquila as his co-workers (Rom 16:3-5; 2 Tim 4:19).

[4] Seutonius wrote that Claudius had expelled all the Jews (which included Priscilla and Aquila) from Rome in AD49.  Priscilla and Aquila later returned to Rome (probably from Ephesus) after the death of Claudias.

[5] Aquila, Priscilla and Paul were all tentmakers by profession.  During Paul’s third Missionary tour, Paul stayed with Priscilla and Aquila at Ephesus for three years.  They were all still living in Ephesus when Paul passed on Aquila and Priscilla’s greeting to the Corinthian church in 1 Corinthians 16:19.  Aquila and Priscilla returned to Rome by AD57 where they became church leaders again.  Paul had no problem with a woman being a church leader!

[6] The Greek does not specify that Priscilla and Aquila invited Apollos into their home.

[7] In its earliest days, Christianity was often referred to as “The Way”. (See Acts 9:2; 19:9,23; 24:14,22; etc.)

[8] Exethento (from ektithemi) 3rd person aorist middle indicative plural.

[9] All of the following words are used in the New Testament to describe the transmission and teaching of the gospel and aspects of Christianity: Parresiazomai means “speak openly, boldly or freely”;  peitho means “persuade”; martureo means “testify” or “bear witness”; lego or laleo simply means “speak” or “talk”; dialegomai means “discuss” or “reason”; parakaleo means “exhort” or “encourage”, kerysso means “proclaim” or “preach”; euaggelizomai means “proclaim the good news or gospel”; ektithemi means “put forth” or “explain”; disdasko means “teach”; etc.

[10] Strong defines ektithemi as “declare” and “expound”. (Strong’s number 1620)

[11] As previously stated, BDAG (p310) defines ektithemi as “to convey information by careful elaboration”.


Bibliography

 Scriptures marked (NIV) are taken from: The Holy Bible, New International VersionCopyright  1973, 1978, 1984 by International Bible Society.  Used by permission of Zondervan.  All rights reserved.

Scriptures marked (NASB) are taken from the NEW AMERICAN STANDARD BIBLE®, Copyright © 1960,1962,1963,1968,1971,1972,1973,1975,1977,1995 by The Lockman Foundation. Used by permission.”

Aland, Barbara, et al (Ed), The Greek New Testament, Fourth Revised Edition, Stuttgart: Biblia-Druck for the United Bible Societies, 1998.

Anon (attributed to Clement of Rome), Constitutions of the Holy Apostles, James Donaldson (ed), Christian Classics Ethereal Library,  http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf07.ix.viii.iv.html accessed 9/09/2010

Bauer, Walter, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 3rd Edition, revised and edited by F.W Danker, University of Chicago Press, 2000.  [Known as BDAG or BAGD for short.]

Belleville, Linda L., “Women Leaders in the Bible” in Discovering Biblical Equality: Complementarity without Heirarchy, Ronald W. Pierce and Rebecca Merrill Groothous (ed), Leicester:InterVaristy Press, 2004.

Blue, B. B., “Apollos” in Dictionary of Paul and his Letters, Gerald F. Hawthorne (ed), Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1993.

Payne, Philip B., Man and Woman, One in Christ: An Exegetical and Theological Study of Paul’s Letters, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2009.

Perschbacher, Wesley J., (Ed) The New Analytical Greek Lexicon, Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 1990

Strong, James, Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, McLean, Virginia: Macdonald Publishing Company, n.d.

Wallace, Daniel B., Did Priscilla “teach” Apollos? An Examination of the Meaning ofἐκτίθημι in Acts 18:26, Bible.org. http://bible.org/article/did-priscilla-teach-apollosaccessed 08/09/2010

 

© 11th of September, 2010; Margaret Mowczko

More articles on Biblical equality by this writer can be found at newlife.id.au

3 Responses to “Did Priscilla Teach Apollos?”

  1. TL says:

    Thank you for your comparison of these two greek words. Very informative.

  2. Merrilyn Mansfield says:

    Paul describes Apollos as an apostle in 1 Cor 4:6, 9-13 who had shared the privations of the traveling apostolic life. When he turns up in Ephesus in the early 50s, prior to his tenure in the Corinth church, it is apparent that he was already a seasoned traveling missionary because he had an ‘accurate’ understanding about Jesus as derived from the Scriptures (the earliest Christian exegetical method taught by the risen Christ post resurrection) and immediately following his time there is appointed to Corinth by the elders in Ephesus where he is on a par with Peter and Paul (not least in the eyes of church members who wished to create a faction in his name).
    He certainly appears to be driven by a commission to preach the Gospel which would accord with him being amongst the disciples from the time of the baptism of John (Acts 1:22). Paul only thinks of himself as an apostle who was ‘untimely born’ which also suggests that Apollos became an apostle in the regular way.

    At the time when Priscilla and Aquila ektithemi to him (in around 53 CE) he is already a highly educated (most likely in Alexandria) and eloquent apostle who is acting on his commission from the risen Christ to preach the Gospel throughout the world (he appears later in Ephesus again – 1 Cor 16:12, and even later in Crete with Zenas, the lawyer in Tit 3:13).

    Priscilla and Aquila heard something in Apollos’ preaching at the synagogue in Ephesus that they wished to clarify and so took him aside and enhanced his already ‘accurate’ understanding of Jesus with a ‘more accurate’ understanding. Their exposition probably had something to do with the baptism of John and the need for Apollos to more powerfully refute from the Scriptures that Jesus was the Messiah, for that is the difference in Apollos’ teaching post their instruction (Acts 18:25, 28).

    Priscilla and Aquila expounded from ‘the way of God’ which I argue is a variant oral/textual tradition to that held by Apollos called ‘the way of the Lord,’ which only knew of the baptism of John.

    In sum, Priscilla and Aquila ektithemi to an apostle named Apollos (these 3 are also synergos with Paul) a very accurate (the comparative, as an elative ἀκριβέστερον is used adverbially here, as it is in Acts 26:5 to describe ‘the straightest sect’ or most precise and rigorous faction in interpreting Mosaic law [cf. Acts 23:15, 20; 24:22] and the same idea of minute attention to detail is conveyed by other derivates of ἀκριβής as noun in Acts 22:3, as superlative adjective in Acts 26:5, and as verb in Matthew 2:7, 16) Christian understanding which Apollos used in Corinth to powerfully refute with the Jews from the Scriptures that Jesus was the Messiah.

    This must be weighed against Paul’s once only prohibition of ‘a (singular) woman’ teaching ‘a (singular) man’ in 1 Tim 2:12. Certainly ektithemi and other words that describe persuasion, refuting, proving, etc are more powerful than didasko in the contexts where they appear together (Acts 18:25-28; Acts 28:23-31). Also when ektithemi is used of Paul it is an expounding that runs from morning till night.
    Best,
    Merri

    Commentators that think Apollos is an apostle are: E. Earle Ellis, ‘Paul and His Co-Workers,’ New Testament Studies 17 (October–July 1970–71), pp. 437-452 (439); F. W. Grosheide, Commentary on the First Epistle to the Corinthians: The English Text with Introduction, Exposition and Notes (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1953), pp. 103 and 106 refers to Paul and Apollos as apostles and states this is the general use of the word; Gordon D. Fee, The First Epistle to the Corinthians, NICNT (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987), p. 174 states that Paul definitely includes Apollos and Peter in the apostles mentioned in 4:9; William F. Orr and James Arthur Walther, 1 Corinthians, AB 32 (New York: Doubleday, 1976), p. 178 say that Paul includes Apollos in the description of apostles; and David E. Garland, 1 Corinthians, BECNT (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2003), p. 132 comments that the problem in Corinth was competing loyalties towards the apostolic leaders Paul, Apollos, and Peter. Thiselton, The First Epistle to the Corinthians, pp. 140, 296, and 306 does not directly address the issue of whether Apollos was an apostle, but he does not hesitate to quote other authors who call him one.

  3. Marg Mowczko says:

    Thanks for this Merri.

    Did you know that there is a new chapter of Christians for Biblical Equality in Sydney?

    Here is a link to their website: http://cbesydney.org.au/

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